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What’s The Bible’s View of Itself?

17 Jan

Hebrew Bible image

Many verses below refer to what the prophets expressed orally and which was later put into written form. Also, some verses refer to specific parts of the existing Bible and only by extension to the whole Bible. All Scriptures are from the English Standard Version (ESV).

THE OLD TESTAMENT

I. The Origin of Scripture

A. The Words From God

Aaron spoke all the words that the LORD had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people. – Exodus 4:30

You shall not add to the word that I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of the LORD your God that I command you. – Deuteronomy 4:2

“And as for me, this is my covenant with them,” says the LORD: “My Spirit that is upon you, and my words that I have put in your mouth, shall not depart out of your mouth, or out of the mouth of your offspring, or out of the mouth of your children’s offspring,” says the LORD, “from this time forth and forevermore. – Isaiah 59:21

“Thus says the LORD: Stand in the court of the LORD’s house, and speak to all the cities of Judah that come to worship in the house of the LORD all the words that I command you to speak to them; do not hold back a word.” – Jeremiah 26:2

The lion has roared; who will not fear? The Lord GOD has spoken; who can but prophesy?” – Amos 3:8

B. Conveyed Through Humans  

I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. – Deuteronomy 18:18

“The Spirit of the LORD speaks by me; his word is on my tongue.”2 Samuel 23:2

While they were bringing out the money that had been brought into the house of the LORD, Hilkiah the priest found the Book of the Law of the LORD given through Moses.2 Chronicles 34:14

They made their hearts diamond-hard lest they should hear the law and the words that the LORD of hosts had sent by his Spirit through the former prophets. Therefore great anger came from the LORD of hosts. – Zechariah 7:12

II The Nature of Scripture

A. Effectual

so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it. – Isaiah 55:11

B. Eternal

The grass withers, the flower fades, but the word of God will stand forever. – Isaiah 40:8

C. The Guide for Life

Your word is lamp to my feet and a light to my path. – Psalm 119:105

D. Infallible

God is not man, that he should lie, or a son of man, that he should change his mind. Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not fulfill it? – Numbers 23:19

the fear of the LORD is clean, enduring forever; the rules of the LORD are true, and righteous altogether. – Psalm 19:9

E. True

Your righteousness is righteous forever, and your law is true.– Psalm 119:142

The insolent utterly deride me, but I do not turn away from your law. – Psalm 119:51

The sum of your word is truth, and every one of your righteous rules endures forever. – Psalm 119:160

And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual. – 1 Cor. 2:13

II. The Nature of Scripture

A. Authoritative

1. Absolute

Then Jesus said to him, “Be gone, Satan! For it is written, “ ‘You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve.’ ” – Matthew 4:10

If anyone thinks that he is a prophet, or spiritual, he should acknowledge that the things I am writing to you are a command of the Lord.  1 Corinthians 14:37

But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach to you a gospel contrary to the one we preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again: If anyone is preaching to you a gospel contrary to the one you received, let him be accursed. For am I now seeking the approval of man, or of God? Or am I trying to please man? If I were still trying to please man, I would not be a servant of Christ. For I would have you know, brothers, that the gospel that was preached by me is not man’s gospel. For I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ. – Galatians 1:8-12

For you know what instructions we gave you through the Lord Jesus– 1 Thessalonians 4:2

2. Prophetic and apostolic

Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. – Hebrews 1:1-2 

For since the message declared by angels proved to be reliable, and every transgression or disobedience received a just retribution, how shall we escape if we neglect such a great salvation? It was declared at first by the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard, – Hebrews 2:2-3

3. Timeless

Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. – Matthew 24:35

B. Complete

I warn everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book, and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book. – Revelation 22:18-19

C. Effectual

But Jesus answered them, “You are wrong, because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God. – Matthew 22:29

“But how then should the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must be so?” – Matthew 26:54

D. The Foundation of Faith

built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, – Ephesians 2:20

E. The Guide of Faith

When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. – John 16:13

F. Historically True

For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. – Matthew 12:40

He answered, “Have you not read that he who created them from the beginning made them male and female, – Matthew 19:4

For as were the days of Noah, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and they were unaware until the flood came and swept them all away, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.– Matthew 24:37-39

For man was not made from woman, but woman from man. Neither was man created for woman, but woman for man. – 1 Corinthians 11:8-9

For Adam was formed first, then Eve;  – 1 Timothy 2:13

G. Indestructible

“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished.” – Matthew 5:17-18

Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I said, you are gods’? If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken— – John 10:34-35

H. Absolute Truth

Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth. – John 17:17

III. The Extent of Biblical Authority

A. To All That Is Written

All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness– 2 Timothy 3:16

B. To The Very Words

But he [Jesus] answered, “It is written, “ ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.’ ” – Matthew 4:4

And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual. – 1 Corinthians 2:13

C. To the Smallest Parts of Words

“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished. – Matthew 5:17-18

D. To Verb Tenses 

But Jesus answered them, “You are wrong, because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God. For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. And as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was said to you by God: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not God of the dead, but of the living.” – Matthew 22:29-32

E. To Number (singular or plural)

Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, “And to offsprings,” referring to many, but referring to one, “And to your offspring,” who is Christ. – Galatians 3:16

Summary:

The Bible claims for itself that every word or part of a word, with tenses and number, is absolutely true since it is given by the Holy Spirit from the mouth of God, who cannot lie (Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18). Therefore, it has final divine authority in whatever it teaches, whether it be historical, scientific, or spiritual matters. This applies to both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Adapted from: Norman L. Geisler. How History Views the Bible – Decide For Yourself. Grand Rapids: MI.: Zondervan, 1982.

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